Some aspects of seed germination in two mustard species influenced by temperature, planting depth and flooding period

Document Type : Research Paper


All phases of this research were conducted in Research Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University in 2017. Before starting the experiments, seeds of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis) and white mustard (S. alba) were collected from East Azarbaijan and Khuzestan provinces at maturity (late spring and early summer) during the 2015-2016 growing season and were stored for seven months. This study included three experiments. Each experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications, and the treatments were factorial. In all experiments, one of the factors was the mustard species. In the first experiment, the second factor consisted of eight temperatures ranging from 5 to 40 °C. In the second experiment, the second factor was 13 sowing depths of 0.5 to 6 cm. In the third experiment, the second factor included six flooding periods from 0 to 35 days. The results of the experiments showed that in most temperatures, the depths and flooding periods, germination of wild mustard were greater than white mustard, which is probably due to the larger size of the seed of this species. The onset of mustard germination was from 4 to 5 °C (base temperature) and peaked at temperatures from 25 to 30 °C (optimal temperature) and then germination stopped at 40 to 45 °C (maximum or ceiling temperature). Considering that with increasing depth, the percentage and rate of emergence in both species decreased. With increasing flooding period, germination percentage, seedling length and seedling weight of both mustard species decreased.


Main Subjects

  1. Abouziena, H. F., El-Sayed El-Awadi, M., El-Saeid H. M., El-Metwally, I. M., El-Desouki I. R. & Singh, M. (2015). Influence of environmental factors, flooding period and seeding depth on germination and emergence of barnyardgrass [Echinochloa crus-galli (L.)] Beauv.]. International Journal of ChemTech Research, 8, 459-467.
  2. Altieri, M. & Liebman, M. A. (1988). Weed management in agroecosystems: Ecological approaches. CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, Florida, USA.
  3. Baird, J. H. & Dickens, R. (1991). Germination and emergence of Virginia buttonweed (Diodia virginiana). Weed Science, 39, 37-41.
  4. Baskin, C. C. & Baskin, J. M. (2001). Seeds: ecology, biogeography, and evolution of dormancy and germination. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
  5. Benvenuti, S., Macchia, M. & Miele, S. (2001). Light, temperature and burial depth effects on Rumex obtusifolius seed germination and emergence. Weed Research, 41, 177-186.
  6. Benvenuti, S., Dinelli, G., Bonetti, A. & Catizone, P. (2005). Germination ecology, emergence and host detection in Cuscuta campestris. Weed Research, 45, 270-278.
  7. Bolfrey-Arku, G. E. K., Chauhan, B. S. & Johnson, D. E. (2011). Seed germination ecology of itchgrass (Rottboellia cochinchinensis). Weed Science, 59, 182-187.
  8. Bradford K. J. & Nonogaki, H. (2007). Seed development, dormancy and germination. Blackwell Publishing Plant Science, Oxford.
  9. Chachalis, D., Korres, N. & Khah, E. M. (2008). Factors affecting seed germination and emergence of Venice mallow (Hibiscus trionum). Weed Science, 56, 509-515.

10. Chantre, G. R., Sabbatini, M. R.. & Orioli, G. A. (2009). Effect of burial depth and soil water regime on the fate of Lithospermum arvense seeds in relation to burial time. Weed Research, 49, 81-89.

11. Chauhan, B. S., gill, G. & Preston, C. (2006). Factors affecting seed germination of annual sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus) in southern Australia. Weed Science, 54, 854-860.

12. Clewis, S. B., Jordan., D. L., Spears, J. F. & Wilcut, J. W. (2007). Influence of environmental factors on cutleaf eveningprimrose (Oenothera laciniata) germination, emergence, development, vegetative growth and control. Weed Science, 55, 264-272.

13. Dorsainvil, F., Dürr, C., Justes, E. & Carrera, A. (2005). Characterisation and modelling of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) emergence under several sowing conditions. European Journal of Agronomy, 23, 146–158.

14. Downing, T. E., Ringlus, L., Hulme, M. & Waughray, D. (1997). Adapting to climate of cold regions. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 809-825.

15. Escudero, A., Núñez, Y. & Pérez-García, F. (2000). Is fire a selective force of seed size in pine species? Acta Oecologica, 21, 245-256.

16. Fenner, M. (1992). Environmental influences of seed size and composition. Horticultural Reviews, 13, 183-213.

17. Gairola, K. C., Nautiyal, A. R.. & Dwivedi, A. K. (2011). Effect of temperatures and germination media on seed germination of Jatropha curcas Linn. Advances in Bioresearch, 2(2), 66-71.

18. Huarte, H. R., Pereyra Zorraquin, M. R., Bursztyn, E. M. & Zapiola, M. L. (2016). Effects of environmental factors on seed germination and seedling emergence of common teasel (Dipsacus fullonum). Weed Science, 64, 421-429.

19. Holm, R. H. (1972). Volatile metabolites controlling germination in buried weed seeds. Plant Physiology, 50(2), 293–297.

20. Huang, J. Z., Shresth, A., Tollenar, M., Deen, W., Rajcan, I., Rhimian, H. & Swanton, C. (2001).  Effect of temperature and photoperiod on the phenological development of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis). Field Crops Research, 70, 75-86.

21. Oleszek, W., Ascard, J., & Johanssom, H. (1996). Brassicaceae as alternative plants for weed control in sustainable agriculture, pp. 3–22, in: Narwal J. & Tauro P. (eds.). Allelopathy in Pest Management for Sustainable Agriculture. S. S. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, India

22. Jorge, M. H. A. & Ray, D. T. (2004). Germination characterization of Guayule (Parthenium argentatum) seed by morphology mass and X-ray and analysis. Industrial Crops and Production, 23, 59-63.

23. Izquierdo, J., Bastida, F., Lezaun, J. M., Sanchez, M. J. & Gonzalez-Andujar, J. L. (2013). Development and evaluation of a model for predicting Lolium rigidum emergence in winter cereal crops in the Mediterranean area. Weed Research, 53(4), 269-278.

24. Khan, M. L. (2004). Effects of seed mass on seedling success in Artocarpus heterophyllus L. a tropical tree species of north – east India. Acta Oecologia, 25, 103-110.

25. Koger, C. H., Reddy, K. N. & Poston, D. H. (2004). Factors affecting seed germination, seedling emergence and survival of texasweed (Caperonia palustris). Weed Science, 52, 989-995.

26. Kulkarni, S. S., Dosdall, L. M., Spence, J. R. & Willenborg, C. J. (2015). Depth of seed burial and gender influence weed seed predation by three species of ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Weed Science, 63, 910-915.

27. Lu, P., Sang, W. & Ma, K. (2006). Effects of environmental factors on germination and emergence of crofton weed (Eupatorium adenophorum). Weed Science, 54, 452-457.

28. Luzuriaga, A. L., Escudero, A. & Erez-Garc, P. I. A. F. (2006). Environmental maternal effects on seed morphology and germination in Sinapis arvensis (Cruciferae). Weed Research, 46, 163–174.

29. Mahmood, A. H., Florentine, S. K., Chauhan, B. S., Mclaren, D. A., Palmer, G. C. & Wright, W. (2016). Influence of various environmental factors on seed germination and seedling emergence of a noxious environmental weed: green galenia (Galenia pubescens). Weed Science, 64, 486-494.

30. Midmore, E. K., McCartan, S. A., Jinks, R. L. & Cahalan, C. M. (2015). Using thermal time models to predict germination of five provenances of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) in southern England. Silva Fennica, 49(2), 1-12.

31. Najafi, H., Baghestani, M. A. & Zand, E. (2009). Weed of Iran: biology and management (Vol 1). Iranian Research Instituste of Plant Protection. (In Farsi)

32. Nandula, V. K., Eubank, T. W., Poston, D. H., Koger, C. H. & Reddy, K. N. (2006). Factors affecting germination of horseweed (Conyza canadensis). Weed Science, 54, 898-902.

33. Nazari, S., Deihimfard, R. & Faraji, J. (2017). An investigation into germination patterns of common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album) in reaction to temperature, salinity and waterlogging stress. Iranian Journal of Seed Research, 3(2), 15-30. (In Farsi)

34. Piper, E. L, Boote, K. J., Jones, J. W. & Grimm, S. S. (1996). Comparison of two phenology models for predicting flowering and maturity date of soybean. Crop Science, 36, 1606-1614.

35. Reddy, N. K. & Singh, M. (1992). Germination and emergence of Hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa). Weed Science, 40, 195-199.

36. Rosario, J. M., Gruz-Hipolito, H., Smeda, J. R. & Depardo, R. (2011). White mustard (Sinapis alba) resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides and alternative herbicides for control in spain. European Journal of Agronomy, 35, 57-62.

37. Salimi, H. (2010). Effects of temperature and light on different wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis) ecotypes germination. Rostaniha, 10 (2), 221-229. (In Farsi)

38. Shafii, B. & Price, W. J. (2001). Estimation of cardinal temperatures in germination data analysis. Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics, 6, 356-366.

39. Singh, M. & Achhireddy, N. R. (1984). Germination ecology of Meelkweedvine (Morrenia odorata). Weed Science, 32, 781-785.

40. Singh, M., Ramirez, A. H. M., Sharma, S. D. & Jhala, A. J. (2012).  Factors affecting the germination of tall morningglory (Ipomoea purpurea). Weed Science, 60, 64–68.

41. Sohrabi, S., Ghanbari, A., Mohassel, M. H. R., Gherekhloo, J. & Vidal, R. A. (2016). Effects of environmental factors on Cucumis melo L. subsp. agrestis Var. agrestis (Naudin) Pangalo seed germination and seedling emergence. South Africa Journal of Botany, 105, 1-8.

42. Soltani, A., Robertson, M. J., Torabi, B., Yousefi-Daz, M. & Sarparast, R. (2006). Modeling seedling emergence in chickpea as influenced by temperature and sowing depth. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 138, 156-167.

43. Soltani, E., Baskin, C. C., Baskin, J. M., Soltani, A., Galeshi, S., Ghaderi-Far, F. & Zeinali, E. (2016). A quantitative analysis of seed dormancy and germination in the winter annual weed Sinapis arvensis (Brassicaceae). Botany, 94, 289–300.

44. Susko, D. J. & Hussein, Y. (2008). Factors affecting germination and emergence of dame’s rocket (Hesperis matronalis). Weed Science, 56, 389-393.

45. Upadhyaya, M. K. & Blackshaw, R. E. (2007). Non chemical weed management: principles, concepts and technology. Cabi Publishing.

46. Wei, S., Zhang, C., Li, X., Cui, H., Huang, H., Sui, B., Meng, Q. & Zhang, H. (2009). Factors affecting Buffalobur (Solanum rostratum) seed germination and seedling emergence. Weed Science, 57, 521-525.

47. Wilson, R .G. (1979). Germination and seedling development of Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense). Weed Science, 27, 146-151.

48. Winn, A. A. (1991). Proximate and ultimate sources of within individual variation in seed mass in Prunella vulgaris (Lamiaceae). American Journal of Botany, 78, 838-844.

49. Wolfe, L. M. (1995). The genetics and ecology of seed size variation in a biennial plant, Hydrophyllum appendiculatum (Hydrophyllaceae). Oecologia, 101, 343–352.

50. Yaniv, Z., Lisker, N., Corbineau, F. (1995). Germination potential of Sinapsis alba seeds collected in Israel. Journal of Arid Environment, 29, 293–303.

51. Zhou, J., Tao, B., Deckard, E. L. & Messersmith, C. G. (2006). Garden huckleberry (Solanum melanocerasium) germination, seed survival, and response to herbicides. Weed Science, 54, 478-483.


Volume 49, Issue 3
November 2018
Pages 71-81
  • Receive Date: 11 November 2017
  • Revise Date: 24 November 2017
  • Accept Date: 28 November 2017
  • Publish Date: 22 November 2018