Effect of soil moisture on overwintering of alkali bulrush (Bolboschoenus maritimus) rhizome and prediction of cardinal temperatures required for tubers sprouting

Document Type : Research Paper


1 University of Tehran

2 b


Bulrush is one the most important weed of paddy rice. Pot and lab experiments were carried out in order to study some of its ecophysiological characteristics. In the first study, the effects of soil moisture (6, 12, 24, 34 percent based on soil dry weight, and permanent flood as control) on overwintering of bulrush tubers and its growth in following year was determined. In the second experiment, the cardinal temperatures required for tubers germination was investigated. The results showed that survival and overwintering of bulrush tubers in 6, 12 and 24 percent moisture was 10, 30 and 82 percent respectively, and fell sharply in higher humidity. In addition, the number and fresh weight of tubers and also length and fresh weight of bulrush rhizomes in 6% moisture was 100, 58, 70 and 92 percent lower compared to field capacity treatment (24 percent moisture level). The maximum germination occurred at 25 to 30 degrees Celsius and the minimum germination at 40°C and the highest germination rate in 30°C. By considering the low survival rate and a considerable reduction in vegetative organs of bulrush in low soil moisture, drainage and tillage of paddy fields after the rice harvesting is a means of reducing overwintering populations and management of this weed. Minimum temperature required for germination of bulrush, compared with rice growing base temperature (12°C), and the growth of bulrush before transplanting rice, indicates well adoptability of bulrush to paddy rice ecosystems and the need to provide appropriate integrated solution for its management.


Main Subjects

  1. Alizade, A. (2006). Soil, plant and water relationships. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Press. P. 483. (In Farsi).
  2. Ampong-Nyarko, K. & De Datta, S. K. (1991). A handbook for weed control in rice. International Rice Research Institiute (IRRI). Pp 113.
  3. Cao, N. & Mercado, B. (1975). Growth behavior of Scirpus maritimus L, Proceedings, 5th Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference. Pp 50-53.
  4. Chung, I. M., Ahn, J. K. & Yun, S. J. (2001). Assessment of allelopathic potential of barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli) on rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars. Crop Protection, 20, 921-928.
  5. Clevering, O., Vierssen, W. V. & Blom, C. (1995). Growth, photosynthesis and carbohydrate utilization in submerged Scirpus maritimus L. during spring growth. New Phytologist. 130, 105-116.
  6. Covell, S., Ellis, R., Roberts, E. & Summerfield, R. (1986). The influence of temperature on seed germination rate in grain legumes I. A comparison of chickpea, lentil, soyabean and cowpea at constant temperatures. Journal of Experimental Botany. 37, 705-715.
  7. Dastghieb, F. & Beibi, M. (1988). Weed flora and their effect on rice in Fars province. Iran Journal. Agriculture Research. 7(2), 135-142. (In Farsi)
  8. De Datta, S. K. & Jereza, H. C. (1976). The use of cropping systems and land and water management to shift weed species. Philippine Journal of Crop Science. 1, 173-178.
  9. De Datta, S. K. & Lacsina, R. (1974). Herbicides for the control of perennial sedge Scirpus maritimus L. in flooded tropical rice. PANS Pest Articles & News Summaries. 20, 68-75.
  10. Ghanbari, A., Rahimian Mashhadi, H., Nassiri Mahallati, M., Kafi, M. & Rastgoo, M. (2006). Ecophysiological aspects  of  Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) germination under different temperatures. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Research, 3, 275-263. (In Farsi).
  11. Haji boland, R., Aghajan zade, T. & Talebpour, A. H. (2005). Study on seed germination and estabilishmentof seedling in plant. Journal of biology. No. 4. Volume.
  12. Iannucci, A., Di Fonzo, N. & Martiniello, P. (2000). Temperature requirements for seed germination in four annual clovers grown under two irrigation treatments. Seed Science and Technology, 28, 59-66.
  13. Ismail, B. S., Chuah, T. S., Salmijah, S., Teng, Y. T. & Schumacher, R. W. (2002). Germination and seedling emergence of glyphosate-resistant and susceptible biotypes of goosegrass (Eleusine indica (L) Gaertn.). Weed Biology and Management. 2:177-185.
  14. Kim, K. U. & De Datta, S. K. (1974). An approach to eradicate Scirpus maritimus weed in flooded rice. Philippine Weed Science Bulletine.
  15. Knapp, A. (2000). An overview of seed dormancy in native warm-season grasses. In: K. J. Moore, & B. E. Anderson, (Eds.), Native Warm-season Grasses: Research Trends and Issues. (Pages 107-123) Madison, WI: CSSA.
  16. Lieffers, V. & Shay, J. (1981). The effects of water level on the growth and reproduction of Scirpus maritimus var. paludosus. Canadian Journal of Botany. 59, 118-121.
  17. Mirkamali, S. M. (1985). Weed management: Country Status Paper—Iran. In: FAO. editor. Proceedings of Improved Weed Management in the Near East, Necosia. Pp 104-116. (In Farsi).
  18. Mohammad Sharifi, M. (2001). Practical guide of paddy weeds in Iran. Deputy for Education and Development of Agricultural Jihad. Pp 114. (In Farsi).
  19. Mohammadvand, E., Koocheki, A., Nassiri Mahallati, M. & Shahdi, A. (2015).  Investigating the germination response of two echinochloa species to temperature and photoperiod with emphasis on invasiveness. Iranian journal of field crop science. 45, 4: 639-648.(In Farsi).
  20. Moody, K. & De Datta, S. K. (1977). Integration of weed control practices for rice in tropical Asia. Proceedings of the Workshop on Weed Control in Small Farms, 15- 16 July., Jakarta, Indonesia, Pp 37-47.
  21. Naylor, R. (1996). Herbicides in Asian rice, transitions in weed management. Stanford University. Pp 270.
  22. Nourmohammadi, G. H. Siyadat, A. & Kashani, A. (2000). Agronomy: cereals. Ahvaz University Press. First Volum. Pp 446. (In Farsi).
  23. Seefeldt, S. S., Jensen, J. E. & Fuerst, E. P. (1995). Log-logistic analysis of herbicide dose-response relationships. Weed Technology. 9, 218–227.
  24. Singh Y., Singh V. P., Chauhan B., Orr A., Mortimer A. M., Johnson D. E. & Hardy, B. (2008). Edited. Direct seeding of rice and weed management in the irrigated rice-wheat cropping system of the Indo-Gangetic Plains. Pp 272.
  25. Singh, G. (2008). Integrated weed management in direct-seeded rice. Direct seeding of rice and weed management in the irrigated rice-wheat cropping system of the indo-gangetic Plains. International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). Pp 161-176.
  26. Smith, W. & Dilday, R. (2003). Rice: Origin, History, Technology and Production. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Pp 642.
  27. Spencer, D. F. & Ksander, G. G. (2000). Emergence of vegetative propagules of Potamogeton nodousus, Potamogeton pectinatus Vallisneria americana, and Hydrilla verticillata based on accumulated degree-days. Aquatic Botany. 67, (3): 237-249.
  28. Steckel, L. E., Sprague, C. L., Stoller, E. W. & Wax, L. M. (2004). Temperature effects on germination of nine Amaranthus Species. Weed Science, 52, 217-221.
  29. Vega, M., Paller, E. & Lubigan, R. (1971). The effect of continuous herbicide application on weed population and on yield of lowland rice. Philippine Agriculturist. 55, 204-209.
  30. Visperas, R. & Vergara, B. (1976). Autecology of Scirpus maritimus L. 2. Effect of light, temperature and moisture. Philippine Weed Science Bulletin. 3, 15-19.
  31. Yaghoubi, B., (2016). Chemical Control of Pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus) and Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) in Paddy Fields. Iranian Journal of weed Science. 11, 195-207. (In Farsi with English abstract).
  32. Yaghoubi, B., Alizadeh, H., Rahimian, H., Baghestani, M. A., Sharifi, M. M. & Davatgar, N. (2010). Key paper. A review on researches conducted on paddy field weeds and herbicides in Iran (Flora change, bioassay of herbicide degradation and dwarfism in rice). 3th Iranian weed science congress Babolsar, Mazandaran, Iran, Pp 2-11. (In Farsi).
  33. Yaghoubi, B. & Farahpour, A. (2012). Time of emergence of paddy weeds. 5Th Iranian Weed Science Congress. Karaj, Iran. Pp 498-501.
  34. Yamasaki, S. & Tange, I. (1981). Growth responses of Zizania latifolia, Phragmites australis & Miscanthus sacchariflorus to varying inundation. Aquatic Botany. 10, 229-239.
Volume 48, Issue 4 - Serial Number 4
March 2018
Pages 1041-1053
  • Receive Date: 23 October 2014
  • Revise Date: 13 February 2018
  • Accept Date: 03 June 2017
  • Publish Date: 20 February 2018