Effect of zeolite on physiological and biochemical attributes of Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum) in deficit irrigation conditions

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Associate Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran

2 Ph. D. Candidate, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran


Drought stress is the most important challenges facing agricultural production, especially in developing countries. Zeolite application can ameliorate the harmful effects of drought stress in crops. In order to evaluate the effect of deficit irrigation (supply of 100, 75, 50 and 25 percent of crop water requirement) and zeolite (0, 5 and 10 t/ha) levels on Proso millet, an experiment was conducted as split block design in 2015 at Shahre Kord University. Result showed that deficit irrigation reduced plant height, leaf area index (LAI), relative water content (RWC), grain yield and its components, biological yield, harvest index, biological yield, water use efficiency and chlorophyll a and b. Also deficit irrigation increased super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) activity, proline and carotenoid. It is noteworthy that zeolites application reduced the harmful effects of deficit irrigation. At all deficit irrigation regimes, application of 10 /ha zeolite resulted the highest grain yield. The highest yield loss (77.2%) was obtained with 25% of crop water requirement compared to control treatment (100% of water requirement and the zeolite application). Overall, results showed that under limited water conditions, application of zeolite reduced the negative effects of drought stress, therefore application of 10 t/ha zeolite is recommended in the cultivation of millet at limited water resources conditions.


Main Subjects

  1. Ashraf, M.Y., Azmi, A.R., Khan, A.H.& Ala, S.A.(1994).Effect of water on total phenols, peroxidase activity and chlorophyll content in wheat. Acta Phsiologica Plantarum,16,185-191.
  2. Bates, L.S., Waldern, R.P.& Teave, I.D.(1973).Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant and Soil,39, 205-107.
  3. Beauchamp, C.& Fridovich, I.(1971).Superoxide dismutase's: improved assays and an assay predictable to acrylamide gels. Analytical Biochemistry,44, 276-287.
  4. Behnamnia, M., Kalantari, Kh.M.& Rezanejad, F.(2009).Exogenous application of brassinosteroid alleviates drought-induced oxidative stress in Lycopersicon esculentum L. General and applied plant physiology,35, 22-34.
  5. Blum, A.(1992).Breeding methods for drought resistance.In: G.Hamlyn, T.J.Flower & B.Jones (eds), Plant Under Stress.Cambridge University Press.pp.197-215.
  6. Bowler, C., Montagu, M.V.& Inze, D.(1992).Superoxide dismutase and stress tolerance. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology,43, 83-116.
  7. Bruck, H., Payne, W.A.& Sattelmacher, B.(2000).Effects of phosphorus and water supply on yield, transpiration, water–use efficiency and carbon isotope discrimination of pearl millet. Crop Science, 40, 120-125.
  8. Chance, B.& Maehly, A.C. (1995).Assay of catalase and peroxidase.PP.764-765 In: S.P.Culowic, and N.O.Kaplan (eds). Methods in enzymology Vol.2.Academic Press.Inc.New York
  9. Dhindsa, R.S., Plumb-Dhindsa, P.& Thorpe, T.A.(1981).Leaf senescence: correlated with increased levels of membrane permeability and lipid peroxidation, and decreased levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Journal of Experimental Botany,32, 93-101.
  10. Earl, H.J.& Davis, R.F. (2003).Effect of drought stress on leaf and whole canopy radiation use efficiency and yield of maize. Agronomy Journal,95, 688-696.‌
  11. Entz, M.H.& Flower, D.B.(1990).Differential agronomic responses of winter wheat cultivars to preanthesis environmental stress. Crop Science,30 (6), 1119-1123.
  12. Eshghi S., Mahmoodabadi, M.R., Abdi, G.R. &Jamali, B.(2010).Zeolite ameliorates the adverse effect of cadmium contamination on growth and nodulation of soybean plant (Glycine max L.). Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences,4(10), 43-50.
  13. Golombek, S. & Al-Ramamneh, E.A.D.(2002).Drought tolerance mechanisms of pearl millet.University of Kassel, Institute of Crop Science, Germany.October 9-11.
  14. Hanson, A.D.& Hitz, W.D.(1982).Metabolic responses of mesophytes to plant water deficits. Annual Review of Plant Physiology,33, 163-203.
  15. Huang, Z.T. & Petrovic, A.M. (1995).Physical properties of sand as affected by clinoptilolite zeolite particle size and quantity. Journal of Turf grass Management,1(1), 1-15.
  16. Karimzadeh Soureshjani H., Emam, Y & Moori, S. (2012). Responses of Yield, Yield Components and Drought Resistance Indices in Bread and Durum Wheat Cultivars to Post-Anthesis Drought Stress. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science. 43(1), 151-162. (in Farsi)
  17. Khazaie H.R., Mohammad abadi, A.A. & Borzooei, A.(2005).The effect of drought stress on morphological and physiological characteristics of millets. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research,3(1), 35-44.(in Farsi)
  18. Kliebenstein, D.J., Dietrich, R.A.,Martin, A.C.,Last, R.L.& Dangl, J.L. (1999).Regulates salicylic acid Induction of copper zinc superoxide dismutase in Arabidopsis thaliana L. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions,12, 1022-1026.
  19. Lichtenthaler, H.& Wellburn A.R. (1983).Determination of total carotenoids and chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b leaf extracts in different solvents. Biochemical Society Transactions,603, 591-592.
  20. Mehrpooyan M.& Faramarzi, A.(2011).Effect of different level of deficit irrigation on quantitative yield and water use efficiency of millet and sorghum. Journal of plants and ecosystems, 7(26), 60-71.(in Farsi)
  21. Mittler, R.(2002).Oxidative stress, antioxidants and stress tolerance. Trends in Plant Science,7, 405-410.
  22. Moori S., Emam, Y.& Karimzadeh, H. (2012).Effect of cutting of irrigation on physiologic traits and yield of wheat genotypes in Shiraz. Journal of Crop Production and Processing, 4, 105-118.(in Farsi)
  23. Nakhaei A., Abasi, M.R. & Arazmjoo, E.(2013).Evaluation of yield and morphological traits of millet genotypes in response t cutting of irrigation at flowering stage. Crops ecophysiology,2(26), 115-128.(in Farsi)
  24. Pareek A., Sopory, S.K., Hans, J.& Govindjee, B.(2009).Abiotic stress adaptation in plants, Physiological, Molecular and Genomic Foundation. Springer Press,569 pages.
  25. Pireivatloum, J., Qasimov, N. & Maralian, H.(2010).Effect of soil water stress on yield and proline content of four wheat lines. African Journal of Biotechnology,9, 036-040.
  26. Pulite, E., Karaca, M.,Demir, H.& Naci Onus, A. (2004).Use of natural zeolite (Clinoptil olite) in agriculture. Journal of Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research,12, 183-189.
  27. Richard, G. A., Luis, S. P., Lisbon, P. & Martin, S. (1998). FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 56.Crop Evapotranspiration (guidelines for computing crop water requirements). FAO, Water Resources, Development and Management Service. Rome, Italy 326p.
  28. Renu, K. C. & Devarshi, S. (2007). Acclimation to drought stress generates oxidative stress tolerance in drought-resistant than susceptible wheat cultivar under field conditions. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 60, 276-283.
  29. Safaee R., Shirani Rad, A. H., Mirhadi, M. J. & Delkhosh, B. (2008). Effect of zeolite on rape seed cultivar in drought stress condition. Journal of Plant Ecology, 15, 63-79. (in Farsi)
  30. Sarvajeet. S. G. & Narendra, T. (2010).Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in a biotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry,3, 1-22.
  31. Seghatoleslami M.J., Kafi, M.& Majidi, E.(2008).Effect of drought stress at different growth stages on yield and water use efficiency of five Poroso millet genotypes. Pakistan journal of Botany, 40(4), 1427-1432.(in Farsi)
  32. Seghatoleslami, M. J., Majidi, E., Kafi, M., Noor Mohammadi, G., Darvish, F. & Mousavi, S. G. (2005).Phenological and morphological response of three millets species to deficit irrigation. Journal Agricultural Science,11(3), 89- 99.(in Farsi)
  33. Shao, H.B., Liang, Z.S.& Shao, M.A.(2005).Changes of some anti-oxidative enzymes under soil water deficits among 10 wheat genotypes at maturation stage. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces,45, 7-13.
  34. Shojaee A., Delkhosh, B., Shirani Rad, A.H.& Noormohamadi, G.(2012).Evaluation of K and zeolite on turnip in late season drought stress condition. Crop Production in environmental stress, 4, 51-64.(in Farsi)
  35. Zahedi H., Noor-Mohamadi, G., Shirani Rad, A.H., Habibi, D.& Boojar, A. (2009).The effects of zeolite and foliar applications of selenium on growth yield and yield components of three canola cultivars under drought stress. World Applied Sciences Journal, 7, 255-262.
Volume 48, Issue 2 - Serial Number 2
September 2017
Pages 443-452
  • Receive Date: 01 February 2016
  • Revise Date: 12 July 2016
  • Accept Date: 25 July 2016
  • Publish Date: 23 August 2017