Effects of conventional and conservation tillage with management residue on wheat (Triticum aestivum L) physiological properties

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Agricultural Jihad Organization of Khorasan Razavi- expert

2 Associate Professor , University of Shahrood , college of Agriculture

3 Professor , Agricultural and Natural Resources Research center of Mashhad

4 Associate Professor, University of Shahrood , college of Agriculture


In order to study the effects of conventional and conservation tillage with management residue on wheat physiological properties, a field experiment was conducted in 2013-2014 at Mashhad Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Razavi Khorasan province. This experiment was carried out as split plot design based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Main plots included tillage systems: 1) conventional tillage, 2) reduced tillage and 3) no tillage; subplots were management residue: 1) 0%, 2) 30% and 3) 60% residue. The results showed that tillage systems had significant effect on relative water content (RWC), the difference between canopy temperature and air temperature (∆t), SPAD reading, Flag leaf area (FLA), Leaf water potential (ΨW) and Radiation interception (RI). The highest RWC (83%), ‌∆t (-7.36 cº), SPAD (47.35), FLA (26.3 cm2), ΨW (-11.19 bar) and RI (90.22%) were detected in no-tillage method. Residue management had significantly different on RWC, ∆t and RI traits, but no significant effect on SPAD reading, Flag leaf area (FLA), leaf water potential (ΨW) was detected. The highest grain yields were obtained under no-till (6912.2 kg/ha) and 60% residue treatment (6980.8 kg/ha). It is concluded that conservation tillage with more aboveground residue could improve wheat yield and some of physiological properties (RWC, ∆t, SPAD reading, FLA, ΨW and RI).


  1. Abbate, P. E., Andrade, F. H., Culot, J. P. & Bindraban, P. S. (1997). Grain yield in wheat: effects of radiation during spike growth period. Field Crops Research, 54, 245-257.
  2. Baker, C. J. & Saxton, K. E. (2007). No-tillage seeding in conversation agriculture.2nd edu. from http://www.fao.org/docrep/012/al298e/al298e.htm.
  3. Bilge, B., Yildirim, M., Barutcular, C. & Genc, I. (2008). Effect of canopy temperature depression on grain yield and yield components in bread and durum wheat. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 36, 34-37.
  4. Caviglia, O. P., Sadras, V. O. & Andrade, F. H. (2004). Intensification of agriculture in the south-eastern pampas capture and efficiency in the use of water and radiation in double-cropped wheat–soybean. Field Crops Research, 87, 117-129. 
  5. Ceja-Navarro, J.A., Rivera, F.N., Patiño-Zúñiga, L., Govaerts, B., Crossa, J., Marsch, Dendooven, L. & Vila-Sanjurjo, A. (2010b). Phylogenetic and Multivariate Analyses to Determine the Effects of Different Tillage and Residue Management Practices on Soil Bacterial Communities. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 76, 3685-3691.
  6. Ceja-Navarro, J.A., Rivera, F.N., Patiño-Zúñiga, L., Govaerts, B., Marsch, R., Vila-Sanjurjo, A. & Dendooven, L. (2010a). Molecular characterization of soil bacterial communities in contrasting zero tillage systems. Plant Soil, 329, 127-137.
  7. Choudhury, B. L. & Idso, S. B. (1985). Evaluating plant and canopy resistances of fieldgrown wheat from concurrent diurnal observations of leaf water potential, stomatal resistance, canopy temperature and evapotranspiration flux. Journal of Agriculture and Forest Meteorology, 34, 67-76.
  8. Fanaei, H.R., Galavi, M., Kafi, M. & Ghanbari Bonjar, A. (2009). Amelioration of water stress by potassium fertilizer in two oilseed species. International Journal of Plant Production, 3 (2). 41-54.
  9. Friedrich, T., Derpsch, R. & Kassam, A. (2012). Overview of the global spread of conservation agriculture adoption. Field action science reports, from http://www.rolf-derpsch.com/en/dissemination.
  10. Fuentes, M., Govaerts, B., Hidalgo, C., Etchevers, J., González-Martín, I., Hernández-Hierro, J.M., Sayre, K.D. & Dendooven, L. (2010). Organic carbon and stable 13C isotope in conservation agriculture and conventional systems. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 42, 551-557.
  11. Gathala, K., Timsina J., Saiful Islam, M. D., Mahbubur Rahman, M. D., Israil Hossain, M. D., Harun-Ar-Rashid, M. D., Ghosh, A. K., Krupnik, T. J., Tiwari, T. P. & McDonald, A. (2014). Conservation agriculture based tillage and crop establishment optionscan maintain farmers’ yields and increase profits in South Asia’srice–maize systems: Evidence from BangladeshMahesh. Field Crops Research, 172, 85-98.  
  12. Gonzalez, L. & Gonzalez-vilar, M. (2001). Determination of relative water content. In: Roger MJR (Ed) Handbook of plant ecophysiologytechniques, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Nederlands, 207-212.
  13. Gonzalez-Dugo, M.P., Moran, M.S., Mateos, L. & Bryant, R. (2005). Canopy temperature variability as an indicator of crop water stress severity. Irrigation Science, 24(4), 233-240.
  14. Govaerts, B., Mezzalama, M., Sayre, K. D., Crossa, J., Lichter, K., Troch, V., Vanherck, K., Corte, P.D. & Deckers, J. (2008). ‘Long-term consequences of tillage, residue management, and crop rotation on selected soil micro-flora groups in the subtropical highlands’, Applied Soil Ecology, 38, 197-210
  15. Govaerts, B., Sayre, K. D., Goudeseune, B., Corte, P. D., Lichter, K., Dendooven, L. & Deckers, J. (2009). Conservation agriculture as a sustainable option for the central Mexican highlands. Soil and Tillage Research, 103, 222-230.
  16.  Gregory, P. J. & Eastham, J. (1996). Growth of shoots and roots, and interception of radiation by wheat and lupin crops on a shallow, duplex soil in response to time of sowing. Austeralia Journal Agriculture Research, 47, 427-435.
  17. Hobbs, P. R., Sayre, K. & Gupta, R. (2008). The role of conservation agriculture in sustainable agriculture. Philosophical Transactions of the Rroyal Society, from http://www.rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/subscriptions.
  18. Kashif, M. & Khaliq, I. (2004). Heritability, correlation and path coefficient analysis for some metric traits in wheat. . International Journal of Agriculture Biology, 6, 138-142.    
  19. Marongwe, L.S., Kwazira, K., Jenrich, M., Thierfelder, C., Kassam, A. & Friedrich, T. (2011). An African success: the case of conservation agriculture in Zimbabwe. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 9(1), 153-161. 
  20. Mathew, R., Feng, Y., Githinji, L., Ankumah, R. & Balkcom, K. (2012). Impact of no-tillage and conventional tillage systems on soil microbial communities. Applied and Environmental Soil Science. from http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aess/2012/548620.
  21. Mohamadi, K. H., Nabiallahi, K., Aghaalikhani, M. & Khormali, F. (2010). Evaluation effect tillage systems on soil physical properties and rainfed wheat yield and yield components. Iranian Journal of Plant Production Research, 16 (4). 77-91.
  22. Mtui, T.A., Kanemasu, E. T. & Wassom, C. (1981). Canopy temperatures, water use, and water use efficiency of corn genotypes. Agronomy Journal, 73, 639-643.
  23. Munijal, R. & Rena, R. K. (2003). Evaluation of physiological traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for terminal high temperature tolerance. Proceedings of the tenth international wheat genetics symposium, poestum. Italian Journal of Classical and Molecular Breeding, 2, 804-805.
  24. Oconnel, M.G., Oleary, G.J., Whitfield, D.M. & Connor, D.J. (2004). Interception of photosynthetically active radiation and radiation use efficiency of wheat field pea and mustard in a semi  arid environment. Field Crops Research, 85, 111-124.
  25. 25.    Ortiz, C., Sayre, K. D., Govaerts, B., Gupta, R., Subbarao, G. V., Ban, T., Hodson, D., Dixon, J. M., Ortiz-Monasterio, J. I. & Reynolds, M. (2008). Climate change: Can wheat beat the heat?. Journal of Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 126, 46-58.
  26. Passban Eslam, B., Shkiba, M. R., Neshabori, M. R., Moghaddam, M. & Ahmadi, M. R. (2000). Effects of water stress on quality and quantity characteristics of rapeseed. Journal of Agriculture Science, 10, 75-85.
  27. Patiño-Zúñiga, L., Ceja-Navarro, J.A., Govaerts, B., Luna-Guido, M., Sayre, K.D. & Dendooven, L. (2009). The effect of different tillage and residue management practices on soil characteristics, inorganic N dynamics and emissions of N2O, CO2 and CH4 in the central highlands of Mexico: a laboratory study. Journal of Plant Soil, 314, 231-241.
  28. Purcell, L. C. (2000). Soybean canopy closure and light interception measurements using digital imagery. Crop Science, 40, 834-837.
  29. Rees, D., Sayre, D., Acevedo, E., Nava sanchez, T., Lu, Z., Zeiger, E. & Limon, A. (1993). Canopy temperature of wheat: Relationship with yield and potential as a technique for early generation selection. October 1993. Wheat special report NO.10.Mexico, DF: CIMMYT. From: http://cimmyt.org.
  30. Reynolds, M.P. & Borlaug, N.E. (2006). Applying innovations and new technologies for international collaborative wheat improvement. Journal of Agriculture Science, 144, 95-110.
  31. Reynolds, M. P., Nagarajan, S. Razzaque, M. A. & Ageeb, O.A.A. (2001). Breeding for adaptation to environmental factors, heat tolerance. CIMMYT, Mexico, DF, 124-135. from http://cimmyt.org.
  32. Rosyara, U.R., Vromman, D. & Duveiller, E. (2008). Canopy temperature depression as an indication of correlative measure of spot blotch resistance and heat stress tolerance in spring wheat. Journal of Plant Pathology, 90 (1), 103-107.
  33. Safari, A., Asodar, M.A., Ghaseminejad, M. & Abdalimashhady, E. (2014). Effect reserve residue, conventional tillage systems and seeding on soil physical properties and wheat yield. Iranian Journal of Agriculture Science and Stability Production, 23(2), 49-59.
  34. Sapkota, J.R.K., Singh, T.B., Jat, R.G., Kumar, M.L. & Gupta, R.K. (2014). Seven years of conservation agriculture in a rice–wheat rotation of Eastern Gangetic Plains of South Asia: Yield trends and economic profitability. Field Crops Research, 164, 199-210
  35. Sato, T., Abdalla, O.S., Oweis, T.Y. & Sakuratani, T. (2006). The Validity of predawn leaf water potential as an irrigation-timing indicator for field-grown wheat in northern Syria. Journal of Agriculture Water Management, 82, 223-236.
  36. Sestera, M., Ravelosonb, H., Tharreauc, D. & Dusserrea, J. (2014). Conservation agriculture cropping system to limit blast disease in upland rainfed rice. Plant Pathology, 63, 373-381.
  37. Singh, K.N., Singh, S.P. & Singh, G.S. (1995). Relationship of physiological attributes with components in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L) under rainfall condition. Journal of Agriculture Science Digest, 15, 11-14.   
  38. Stark, J.C., Pavek, J.J. & Mccann, I.R. (1991). Using canopy temperature measurements evaluate drought tolerance potato genotypes. Journal of America Society Horticultural Science, 116(3), 412-415.
  39. 39-Tarkalsona, D.D., Hergertb, G.W. & Cassman, K.G. (2006). Long-term effects of tillage on soil chemical properties and grain yields of a dryland winter wheat sorghum/corn-fallow rotation in the great plains. Agronomy Journal, 98, 26-33.
  40. Thierfelder, C. & Wall, P. C. (2010). Rotation in conservation agriculture systems of Zambia: Effects on soil quality and water relations. Experimental Agriculture, 46(3), 309-325.
  41. Van Ittersum, M. K., Howden, S, M. & Asseng, S. (2003). Sensitivity of productivity and deep drainage of wheat cropping system in a mediterranean environment to changes in CO2 temperature and precipitation.  Journal of Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment, 97, 255-273.
  42. Verhulst, N., Govaerts, B., Nelissen, V., Sayre, K.D., Crossa, J., Raes, D. & Deckers, J. (2011). The effect of tillage, crop rotation and residue management on maize and wheat growth and development evaluated with an optical sensor. Field Crops Research, 120, 58-67.
  43. Verhulst, N., Govaerts, Sayre, K.D., Sonder, K., Romero-Perezgrovas, R., Mezzalama, M. & Dendooven, L. (2012). Conservation agriculture as a means to mitigate and adapt to climate change, a case study from Mexico. Climate Change Mitigation and Agriculture. Earthscan, Oxon, 237-300. From: http://www. teca.fao.org/sites/default/files/news.
  44. Verhulst, N., Kienle, F., Sayre, K.D., Deckers, J. & Raes, D. (2010). Soil quality as affected by tillage-residue management in a wheat-maize irrigated bed planting system. Journal of Plant Soil, 340, 453-466.
  45. Williams, J.D. & Wuest, S.B. (2011). Tillage and no-tillage conservation effectiveness in the intermediate precipitation zone of the inland Pacific Northwest, United States. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 66(4), 242-249.
Volume 47, Issue 2 - Serial Number 2
October 2016
Pages 277-289
  • Receive Date: 28 June 2015
  • Revise Date: 25 November 2015
  • Accept Date: 30 November 2015
  • Publish Date: 22 August 2016