Effects of salinity on seed germination indices of blond plantain (Plantago ovata) at different temperatures

Document Type : Research Paper


1 M.Sc. Student, Seed Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

2 Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticultural Science and Landscape, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran


In many studies, the medicinal properties and impact of blond plantain on mechanisms of human physical activities has been proven. Salinity is an important abiotic stresses with detrimental effects on seed germination. An experiment was conducted to study germination characteristics of blond plantain under water and salinity stress conditions at different temperatures. The experiment was conducted at the University of Tehran Seed lab, Karaj, in 2015. Temperatures regimes included 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C. For each temperature, the treatment forsalinity and water stress was four water potentials (zero, -4, -8 and -12 bar) using sodium chloride. The effects of salt stress on seed germination of blond plantain at different temperatures showed the highest resistance to salinity at 20ºC. Salt stress at different temperatures reduced germination parameters. Increased temperatures resulted in better conditions for seed germination and increase the salinity stress tolerance. Increased severity of salinity causes the reduction of temperature range in which the seed can germinate.


Main Subjects

  1. Adam, N., Dierig, D., Coffelt, T., Wintermeyer, M., Mackey, B. & Wall, G. (2007). Cardinal temperatures for germination and early growth of two Lesquerella species. Industrial Crops and Products, 25(1), 24-33.
  2. Almansouri, M., Kinet, J.-M. & Lutts, S. (2001). Effect of salt and osmotic stresses on germination in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.). Plant and Soil, 231(2), 243-254.
  3. Bannayan, M., Nadjafi, F., Azizi, M., Tabrizi, L. & Rastgoo, M. (2008). Yield and seed quality of Plantago ovata and Nigella sativa under different irrigation treatments. Industrial Crops and Products, 27(1), 11-16.
  4. Baskin, C.C. & Baskin, J.M. (2001). Seeds: ecology, biogeography, and evolution of dormancy and germination. Elsevier.
  5. Bliss, D.Z., Savik, K., Jung, H.-J.G., Whitebird, R. & Lowry, A. (2011). Symptoms associated with dietary fiber supplementation over time in individuals with fecal incontinence. Nursing Research, 60(3 Suppl), S58-S67.
  6. Brändel, M. & Jensen, K. (2005). Effect of temperature on dormancy and germination of Eupatorium cannabinum L. achenes. Seed Science Research, 15(02), 143-151.
  7. Bybordi, A. & Tabatabaei, J. (2009). Effect of salinity stress on germination and seedling properties in canola cultivars (Brassica napus L.). Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 37(2), 71.
  8. Delachiave, M.E.A. & Pinho, S.Z.D. (2003). Germination of Senna occidentalis link: seed at different osmotic potential levels. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 46(2), 163-166.
  9. Delaram, M. (2011). The effect of Echinophora-platyloba on primary dysmenorrhea. 15(3).
  10. Garg, G. (2010). Response in germination and seedling growth in Phaseolus mungo under salt and drought stress. Journal of environmental biology/Academy of Environmental Biology, India, 31(3), 261-264.
  11. Garg, G. (2010). Response in germination and seedling growth in Phaseolus mungo under salt and drought stress. Journal of environmental biology/Academy of Environmental Biology, India, 31(3), 262, 264-1.
  12. Jafari, M. (1994). Study on salt tolerance of some rangeland grasses of Iran. The Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands. (in Farsi)
  13. Kamboj, V. (2000). Herbal medicine. Current Science-Bangalore, 78(1), 35-38.
  14. Khan, M.A. & Gulzar, S. (2003). Germination responses of Sporobolus ioclados: a saline desert grass. Journal of Arid Environments, 53(3), 387-394.
  15. Marlett, J.A. & Fischer, M.H. (2003). The active fraction of psyllium seed husk. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 62(01), 207-209.
  16. Mehdikhani, H. (2007). Effect of salinity on seed germination of medicinal plants. The Third Conference of Medicinal Plants, P. 144. (in Farsi) 
  17. MISRA, N. & Dwivedi, U. (1995). Carbohydrate metabolism during seed germination and seedling growth in green gram under saline stress. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 33(1), 33-38.
  18. Mizrahi, Y. & Pasternak, D. (1985). Effect of salinity on quality of various agricultural crops. in: Biosalinity in action: Bioproduction with saline water, Springer, pp. 301-307.
  19. Nakamura, Y., Yoshikawa, N., Hiroki, I., Sato, K., Ohtsuki, K., Chang, C.-C., Upham, B.L. & Trosko, J.E. (2005). β-Sitosterol From Psyllium Seed Husk (Plantago ovata Forsk) Restores Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication in Ha-ras Transfected Rat Liver Cells. Nutrition and Cancer, 51(2), 218-225.
  20. Qu, X.-X., Huang, Z.-Y., Baskin, J.M. & Baskin, C.C. (2008). Effect of temperature, light and salinity on seed germination and radicle growth of the geographically widespread halophyte shrub Halocnemum strobilaceum. Annals of Botany, 101(2), 293-299.
  21. Rauf, M., Munir, M., ul Hassan, M., Ahmad, M. & Afzal, M. (2007). Performance of wheat genotypes under osmotic stress at germination and early seedling growth stage. African Journal of Biotechnology, 6(8).
  22. Raziei, T., Saghafian, B., Paulo, A.A., Pereira, L.S. & Bordi, I. (2009). Spatial patterns and temporal variability of drought in western Iran. Water Resources Management, 23(3), 439-455.
  23. Runham, S. (1998). Small scale study of yield and quality of oils from six herb species. MAFF project Nf0505, 30p.
  24. Saha, P., Raychaudhuri, S., Mishra, D., Chakraborty, A. & Sudarshan, M. (2008). Role of trace elements in somatic embryogenesis–A PIXE study. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 266(6), 918-920.
  25. Seied sharifi, R. (2007). The effect of salinity on germination indices Silybum Marianum.The third Conference of Medicinal Plants, P. 207-212. (in Farsi)
  26. Soltani, A., Galeshi, S., Zeinali, E. & Latifi, N. (2002). Germination, seed reserve utilization and seedling growth of chickpea as affected by salinity and seed size. Seed Science and Technology, 30(1), 51-60.
  27. Soltani, A. & Maddah, V. (2010). Simple applied programs for education and research in agronomy. Iranian Society of Ecological Agriculture. Tehran. Iran. 80p.
  28. Turhan, H. & Ayaz, C. (2004). Effect of salinity on seedling emergence and growth of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars. International Journal of  Agriculture and  Biology, 6(1), 149-152.
  29. Wafa’a, A. (2010). Comparative effects of drought and salt stress on germination and seedling growth of Pennisetum divisum (Gmel.) Henr. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 7(5), 640-646.
  30. Zeinali, E., Soltani, A. & Galeshi, S. (2002). Components of seed germination response to salt stress in Brassica napus. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 32, 137-145. (in Farsi)
Volume 47, Issue 2 - Serial Number 2
October 2016
Pages 233-242
  • Receive Date: 19 August 2015
  • Revise Date: 13 December 2015
  • Accept Date: 16 December 2015
  • Publish Date: 22 August 2016