Effect of mycorrhiza fungi and humic substances on yield and yield components of corn (Zea mays L. var. s.c. 704) under limited irrigation condition

Document Type : Research Paper



To study the effects of mycorrhiza fungi and humic substances on yield and yield components of corn (Zea mays L. var. s.c. 704) under limited irrigation condition, an experiment was conducted in split plot arrangement based on RCBD in four replications at the research farm of University of Tehran (Karaj-Iran) in 2011. The main factor consisted of three irrigation levels i.e. normal (irrigation every 7days); mild water stress (irrigation every 10days) and severs water stress (irrigation every 14days). Fertilizer treatments comprised of zero (control); application of phosphorus 50% (based on soil testing result); application of phosphorus 100%; phosphorus 50% plus mycorrhiza; phosphorus 50% plus humic substance; and phosphorus 50% with humic substance plus mycorrhiza. The results showed that water stress significantly decreased yield. The fertilizer treatments had significant effects on grain yield, biological yield, and plant height, grain protein, grain nitrogen and phosphorus; but had no significant effect on seed weight, and harvest index. Comparison of treatment means for different traits showed that the greatest change compared to the control, was for the treatment of 50% humic compounds plus phosphorus fertilizer with mycorrhizal fungi.


  1. Abo-El-Kheir, M.S.A. & Mekki, B.B. (2007). Response of maize single cross-10 to water deficits during silking and grain filling stages. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 3(3), 269-272.
  2. Aliabadi Farahani, H. Lebaschi, M., Shiranirad, H. & Amir, H. (2008). Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, different levels of phosphorus and drought stress on water use efficiency, relative water content and proline accumulation rate of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 2(6), 125-131.
  3. Alizade, A. (2005). Effect of different nitrogen levels and water stress during different growth stages on physiological characteristics, yield and yield components and nutrient uptake and mycorrhizal Mzysty study on maize. Ph.D. Thesis, Azad Islamic University, Ahwaz Branch.
  4. Amerian, M.R., Stewart, W.S. & Griffiths, H. (2001). Effect of two species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth, assimilation and leaf water relations in maize (Zea mays L.). Annals of Applied Biology, 63, 73-76.
  5. Amirabadi, M., Rajalee, F., Ardekani, M.R. & Borjee, M. (2009). Effect of azotobacter and mycorrhizal fungi inoculants at different levels of phosphorus on uptake of some mineral elements by forage maize. Soil Research Journal. (Soil & Water Science), 23(1), 07-115.
  6. Ayas, H. & Gulser, F. (2005). The effect of sulfur and humic acid on yield components and macronutrient contents of spinach. Journal of Biological Sciences, 5(6), 801- 804.
  7. Bismillah Khan, M., N. Hussain & Lqbal, M. (2001). Effect of water stress on growth and yield components maize variety YHS202. Journal of Research (Science), Bahaudin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan, 12(1), 15-18.
  8. Burkowska, A. & Donderski, W. (2007). Impact of humic substances on bacterioplankton in eutrophic lake. Polish journal of Ecology, 55(1), 155-160.
  9. Cakir, R. (2004). Effect of water stress at different development stages on vegetative and reproductive growth of corn. Field Crops Research, 89, 1-16.
  10. Chughan, R. (2004). Improvement of corn for drought tolerance and nitrogen (theory and practice). Ministry of Jihad Keshavarzi.
  11. Debaeke, P. & Aboudrare, A. (2004). Adaptation of crop management to water-limited environment. European Journal of Agronomy, 21, 433-446.
  12. Efeoglu, B., Ekmekci, Y. & Cicek, N. (2009). Physiological responses of three maize cultivars to drought stress and recovery. South African Journal of Botany, 75, 34-42.
  13. Ghooshchi, F., Seilsepour, M. & Jafari, P. (2008). Effects of water stress on yield and some agronomic traits of maize [SC 301]. American-Eurasian Journal Agriculture & Environment Sciences, 4(3), 302-305.
  14. Ghorbani, S., Khazaei, H., Kafi, M. & Banayan Awal, M. (2010). The effect of humic acid in water irrigation on corn yield and yield components. Journal of Agricultural Ecology, 2(1), 123-131.
  15. Guppy, C.N., Menzies, N.W., Moody, P.W. & Blamey, F.P.C. (2005). Competitive sorption reactions between phosphorus and organic matter in soil: A review. Soil Research, 43, 189-202.
  16. Hong-Bo, S., Li-Ye, C., Jaleel, C.A. & Chang-Xing, Z. (2008). Water-deficit stress-induced anatomical changes in higher plants. Comptes rendus Biologies, 331, 215-225.
  17. Jalilian, J., Modarres Sanavy, S.A.M. & Sabaghpour, S.H. (2005). Effect of plant density and supplemental irrigation on yield, yield components and protein content of four chickpea (Cicer arietinum) cultivars under dry land condition. Journal of Agriculture Sciences and Natural Resource, 12(5). (in Farsi)
  18. Kafi, M., Barzoee, A. Salehi, M., Kamandi, A., Masoomi, A. & Nabati, J. (2009). Environmental stresses on plant physiology. Meshhad Jihad publishing Organization. (In Farsi)
  19. Kapoor, R., Giri, B. & Mukerji, K.G. (2004). Improved growth and essential oil yield and quality in Foeniculum vulgare mill on mycorrhizal inoculation supplemented with P-fertilizer. Bioresource Technology, 93(3), 307-311.
  20. Mackowiak, C.L., Grossl, P.R. & Bugbee, B.G. (2001). Beneficial effects of humic acid on micronutrient availability to wheat. Soil Science Society of American Journal, 65, 1744-1750.
  21. Majidian, M.A., Ghalavand, A.A., Kamkar Hagigi, W.N. & Karimian, N.A. (2008). Effect of drought stress and nitrogen on chlorophyll, chlorophyll fluorescence and grain yield in maize. The 10th Agronomy Congress of Iran.
  22. Nardi, S., Pizzeghello, D., Muscolo, A. & Vianello, A. (2002). Physiological effects of humic substances on higher plants. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 34, 1527-1536.
  23. Ouni, Y., Ghnaya, T., Montemurro, F., Abdelly, C.H. & Lakhdar, A. (2014). The role of humic substances in mitigating the harmful effects of soil salinity and improve plant productivity. International Journal of Plant Production, 8(3).
  24. Paknejad, F., Vazan, S., Golzardi, F. & Habibi, D. (2009). Regression, correlation and path analysis for yield and yield components of maize hybrids 704 under different irrigation methods. Agronomy Journal, 5(2), 97-116. (in Farsi)
  25. Paksoy, M., Türkmen, Ö. & Dursun, A. (2010). Effects of potassium and humic acid on emergence, growth and nutrient contents of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) seedling under saline soil conditions. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9, 5343-5346.
  26. Pessarakli, M. (2001). Handbook of Plant and Crop Physiology. Second Edition, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, 997 p.  
  27. Pettit, R.E. (2004). Organic matter, humus, humate, humic acid, fulvic acid and humin: their importance in soil fertility and plant health [Online]. Available at www.humate.info/mainpage.htm.
  28. Sajedi, N.A. & Rejali, F. (2011). Effects of water stress, the use of mycorrhizal inoculation on the absorption of micronutrients in corn. Soil Research Journal, 25(2), 83-92 (In Farsi)
  29. Saleem, A.U.R., Saleem, U. & Subhani, G.M. (2007). Correlation and path coefficient analysis in maize (Zea mays L.). Journal Agriculture Research, 45(3), 177-183.
  30. Savov, V., Valchinkova, P., Bratkova, S. & Angelova, G. (2009). Effect of microbial, enzyme and humic subsrances on mineral nutrition and grain quality of maize hybrids KN 509 and KN M625. Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment.
  31. Siadat, A. (2008). Additional Agriculture, class notes. (In Farsi)
  32. Song, Y., Birch, C. & Hanan, J. (2007). Architectural analysis and modeling of maize growth and development under water stress. In 5th International Workshop on Functional Structural Plant Models (FSPM07), Napier New Zealand (pp. 04-10).
  33. Tan, K.H. (2003). Humic Matter in Soil and the Environment. Marcel Dekker, New York.
  34. Troehza Loyanchan, T.E. (2003). Endomycorrhizal fungi survival in continuous corn, soybean and fallow. Agronomy Journal, 95(1), 224-230.
  35. Türkmen, O., Demir, S., Sensoy, S. & Dursun, A. (2005). Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and humic acid on seedling development and nutrient content of pepper grown under saline soil conditions. Journal of Biological Sciences, 5, 568-574.
  36. Yazdani, F., Allahdadi, A., Akbari, G.A. & Bebahani, M.R. (2007). Effects of drought stress and super absorbent (Tarawat A200) on yield and yield components of soybean (Glycine max). Pajouhesh-va-Sazandegi (Agronomy & Horticulture), 75(1), 167-174. (In Farsi)
  37. Zare, K., Vazin, F. & Hassanzadehdelouei, M. (2014). Effects of Potassium and iron on yield of corn (Zea mays L.) in drought stress. Cercet─âri Agronomice în Moldova, XLVII (1), 157.
Volume 47, Issue 2 - Serial Number 2
October 2016
Pages 165-174
  • Receive Date: 24 May 2015
  • Revise Date: 10 November 2015
  • Accept Date: 11 November 2015
  • Publish Date: 22 August 2016