ارزیابی اثر محلول‌پاشی اکسید روی به فرم معمول و نانوذرات بر فعالیت آنزیم‌های آنتی‌اکسیدانی و محتوای پرولین در دو رقم Zea Mays L. تحت تنش شوری

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه شاهرود، سمنان

2 استادیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان

3 دانشجوی دکتری، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثر محلول‌پاشی اکسید روی به دو فرم معمول و نانوذرات بر واکنش دو رقم ذرت به شوری، آزمایشی گلدانی در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در چهار تکرار اجرا شد. عوامل آزمایشی شامل دو رقم ذرت (تودۀ بذری و سینگل کراس 704)، سه تیمار تغذیۀ برگی (محلول‌پاشی اکسید روی به فرم معمول، به فرم نانوذرات و تیمار عدم محلول‌پاشی آب مقطر) و سه سطح شوری (صفر، 75 و 150 میلی‌مولار کلرید سدیم) بود. وزن خشک اندام هوایی در اثر شوری کاهش یافت و این کاهش در رقم سینگل کراس 704 بیشتر از تودۀ بذری بود. محتوای پرولین، مالون دآلدئید و فعالیت آنزیم‌های سوپراکسید دسموتاز، کاتالاز و آسکوربات پراکسیداز برگ در واکنش به تنش شوری افزایش یافت. میزان افزایش محتوای پرولین و فعالیت آنزیم‌های آنتی‌اکسیدانی در رقم تودۀ بذری در مقایسه با رقم سینگل کراس 704 بیشتر بود. محلول‌پاشی اکسید روی به دو فرم معمول و نانو سبب افزایش وزن خشک اندام هوایی و فعالیت آنزیم سوپراکسید دسموتاز هر دو رقم شد. صرف نظر از رقم، میزان افزایش فعالیت آنزیم آسکوربات پراکسیداز تحت تنش شوری در اثر محلول‌پاشی اکسید روی به فرم نانوذرات نسبت به فرم معمول آن کمتر بود. نتایج این آزمایش نشان داد که افزایش محتوای پرولین و فعالیت آنزیم‌های آنتی­اکسیدانی تودۀ بذری ذرت تحت تنش شوری بیشتر از سینگل کراس 704 بود. همچنین نتایج مطالعۀ حاضر بیانگر تأثیر مثبت و بارزتر فرم نانوذرات اکسید روی بر ارقام ذرت بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of foliar application of ordinary and nano-particles of zinc oxide on the antioxidant enzyme activity and proline content of two Zea Mays L. cultivars under salt stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Fathi 1
  • Morteza Zahedi 2
  • Shahram Torabian 3
1 Ph. D. Student, Sharood University, Semnan
2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agiculture, Isfahan University of Technology
3 Ph. D. Student, Faculty of Agriculture, Tabriz University
چکیده [English]

This experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the effects of foliar application of ordinary and nano-particles of zinc oxide on the response of corn to salinity. Treatments included two corn genotypes (seed mass and Sc 704), three spray levels (zinc oxide, nano-sized zinc oxide, and a spray of water treatment) and three salinity levels (0, 75 and 150 mM NaCl). Shoot dry matter was decreased as the level of salinity was increased and the reduction was greater in Seed mass than in Sc 704. However, the enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbat peroxidase (APX), and also the concentration of MDA and proline in leaves were increased under saline conditions. The extent of increases in proline content and the antioxidant enzyme activities was larger in Seed mass than in Sc 704. Foliar application of zinc oxide had significant positive effects on shoot dry matter and on the activity of SOD in leaves. Regardless of cultivars, the extent of increase in the activity of APX under saline condition was smaller when plants were sprayed with nano-sized zinc oxide compared to the ordinary bulk form. The results from this experiment showed that there were positive correlations between the increase in proline content and the enhanced antioxidant enzyme under saline condition and the salt tolerance of the more salt tolerant cultivar. Although, there were no significant differences between the two tested cultivars in response to zinc oxide foliar application, positive effects of nano-sized was more than ordinary form.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Nano-sized
  • Catalase
  • peroxides
  • superoxide dismutase
  • Single Cross704
  • Foliar Application
Aebi, H (1984). Catalase in vitro. Method Enzymol, 105, 121-126.
Bates, L. S. (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant and Soil, 39: 205-207.
Baybordi, A. (2004). Effect of Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu on the quality and quantity of wheat under salinity stress. Journal Water and Soil Science, 17, 140-150.
Brennan, R.F. (1991). Effectiveness of zinc sulphate and zinc chelate as foliar spray in alleviating zincdeficiency of wheat grown on zinc-deficient soils in Wewstern Australia. Australian Experiment Agriculture, 31, 831-834.
Cakmak, I. (2000). Possible roles of zinc in protecting plant cells from damage by reactive oxygen species. New Phytol, 146, 185-205.
Cha-um, S. & Kirdmane, C. (2009). Effect of salt stress on proline accumulation, photosynthetic ability and growth characters in two maize cultivars. Pakestanian Journal of Botany, 41, 87-98.
Cicek, N. & Cakirlar, H. (2002). The effect of salinity on some physiological parameters in two maize cultivar. Journal of Plant Physiology, 28, 66-74.
Delauney, A. J. & Verma, D. S. (1993). Proline biosynthesis and osmoregulation in plants. Plant Journal, 4, 215-223.
Esfandiar, E., Shakiba M.R., Mahboob, S., Alyari, H. & Toorchi, M. (2007). Water stress, antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation in wheat seedling. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, 5, 148-153.
Gadallah, M.A.A. (2000). Effects of indole-3-acetic acid and zinc on the growth, osmotic potential and soluble carbon and nitrogen components of soybean plants growing under water deficit. Journal of Arid Environ, 44, 451-467.
Grzebisz, W., Wrońska, M., Diatta, J.B. & Dullin, P. (2008). Effect of zinc foliar application at early stages of maize growth on patterns of nutrients and dry matter accumulation by the canopy. Part I. Zinc uptake patterns and its redistribution among maize organs. Journal of Elementolgy, 13, 17-28.
Halliwell, B. (1999). Antioxidant defense mechanism from the beginning to the end. Free RadicalReserch, 31, 261-272.
Kalayci, M., Torun, B., Eker, S., Aydin, M., Ozturk, L. & Cakmak, I. (1999). Grain yield, zinc efficiency and zinc concentration of wheat cultivation grown in a zinc-deficient calcareous soil in field and greenhouse. Field Crops Research, 63, 87-98.
Karpinski, S., Gabrys, H. A., Mateo, K. & Mullineaux, P.M. (2003). Light perception in plant disease defense signalling. Current Opinion Plant Biology, 6, 390-396.
Khoshgoftarmanesh, A. H., Shariatmadari, H., Karimian, N., Kalbasi, M. & Khajehpour, M. R. (2004). Zinc Efficiency of Wheat Cultivars Grown on a Saline Calcareous Soil. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 27, 1953–1962.
Mirzapour, M.H. & Khoshgoftar, A.H. (2006). Zinc application effects on yield and seed oil content of sunflower grown on a saline calcareous soil. Journal of PlantNutrition, 29, 1719-1727.
Monica, R.C. & Cremonini, R. (2009). Nanoparticles and higher plants. Caryologia, 62, 161-165.
Munns, R. (1993). Physiological process limiting plant growth in saline soil: some dogmas and hypotheses. Plant Cell Environ, 16, 15-24.
Nakano, Y. & Asada, K. (1981). Hydrogen peroxide is scavenged by ascorbate-specific peroxidase in spinach chloroplasts. Plant Cell Physiology, 22, 867-880.
Neto, A.D., Prisco, J.T., Eneas-Filho, J., Abreu, C.E.B. & Gomes-Filho, E. (2005). Effect of salt stress on antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation in leaves and roots of salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive maize genotypes. Environ Experimental Botany, 56, 87-94.
Nishikimi, M., Rao, N.A. & Yagi, K. (1972). The occurrence of superoxide anion in the reaction of reduced phenazine methosulphate and molecular oxygen. Biochemistry and Biophysics Research,48, 849-854.
Pandey, A.C., Sanjay, S.S. & Yadav, R.S. (2010). Application of ZnO nanoparticles in influencing the growth rate of Cicer arietinum. Journal of Experimental Nanoscience, 5, 488-497.
Peaslee, D.E., Isarang, K. & Leggeha, J.E. (1981). Accumulation and translocation of zinc by two corn cultivars. Agronomy Journal, 73, 729-732. 
Prasad, T.N.V.K.V., Sudhakar, P., Sreenivasulu, Y., Latha, P., Munaswamy, V., Raja Reddy, K., Sreeprasad, T.S., Sajanlal, P.R. & Pradeep, T. (2012). Effect of nanoscales Zinc Oxide on the germination, growth and yield of peanut. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 35, 905-927.
Rios-Gonzalez, L. & Herman Lips, S. (2002). The activity of antioxidant enzymes in maize and sunflower seedlings as effected by salinity and different nitrogen sources.Plant science, 162, 923-930.
Sairam, R.K., Rao, K.V. & Srivastava, G.C. (2002). Differential response of wheat genotypes to long term salinity stress in relation to oxidative stress, antioxidant activity and osmolyte concentration. Plant Science, 163, 1037- 1046.
Selote, D.S. & Khanna-Chopra, R. (2004). Drought-induced spikelet sterility is associated with an inefficient antioxidant defense in rice panicles. Plant Physiology, 121, 462-471.
Torabian, S. (2011). Effects of Foliar Application of Nano-Sized Iron Sulphate and Zinc Oxide on the Response of Sunflower Cultivars to Salinity. M.Sc. Dissertation, Isfahan University of technology, Iran. (In Farsi).