Prediction of Seed Regeneration time of Some Medicinal Plants by Estimation of Viability equation Constants

Document Type : Research Paper


Assistant Prof. Dept. of Agronomy and Plant breeding, Lorestan University, Khorram Abad, Iran


One of the most common methods for conservation of plant genetic resources is their ex situ storage as seed gene banks. Seeds that are stored in the gene banks must be regenerated due to exchange and seed deterioration; if they not be regenerated the potential benefits of infrastructure investments for germplasm ex situ conservation may not be attained. Prediction of seed longevity is based on viability equation that has four constants which are species specific. The aim of this project was estimation of these constants and then using them for predicting the regeneration time of Thymus transcaspicus,T. daenensis,Salvia officinalis, Satureja hortensis, Dracocephalum moldavica, Descurainia sophia,Eruca sativa andMelilotus officinalis. The seeds were placed in three environments with relative humidity of 20, 40 and 60% and their moisture content was measured after equilibrium. Then the seeds sealed in nylon pockets and stored at 30, 35 and 40 ºC. The TP germination tests with three replications were done monthly. The Excel software was used for estimation of viability constants (i.e. KE, Cw , CH, CQ). The KE was estimated 5.065, 5, 5, 4.46, 3.837, 4.33 and 4.21 for T. transcaspicus, T. daenensis, Salvia officinalis, Satureja hortensis, Dracocephalum moldavica, Descurainia sophia, Eruca sativa and Melilotus officinalis respectively. The maximum and minimum seed longevity estimated for T. transcaspicus and Eruca sativa respectively. If viability be 100% at the beginning of the storage, the seeds of T. transcaspicus and E. sativa with 8% moisture content in the active collection (5 ºC) must be regenerated after 123 and 15 years respectively.


  1. Assareh, M.H. & Akhlaghi, S.J.S. (2009). Strategic framework for developing and promoting natural resources research in I.R. Iran. Principles, strategies, approaches. RIFR publication, Tehran, 379 pages.
  2. Dickie, J. B., McGrath, S. & Linington, S. H. (1985). Estimation of provisional seed viability constants for Lupinus polyphyllus Lindley. Annals of  Botany, 55: 147–151.
  3. Dickie, J.B., Ellis, R.H. Kraak, H.L. Ryder K. & Tompsett, P.B. (1990). Temperature and seed storage longevity. Annals of Botany, 65:197-204.
  4. Eisvand, H. R., Maddah-Arefi, H., & Nasiri, M. (2004). Seed production challenges in some species of bromus, aegilops and onobrychis in Natural Resources Gene Bank of Iran. In Proceedings of the 12th Iranian Biology Conference, Bu Ali Sina University of Hamedan, August 31–September 2, 2004.
  5. Ellis, R.H. & Roberts, E.H. (1980a). Improved equations for the prediction of seed longevity. Annals of Botany, 45: 13–30.
  6. Ellis, R.H. & Roberts, E.H. (1980b). The influence of temperature and moisture on seed viability period in barley (Hordeum distichum L.). Annals of Botany, 45: 31–37.
  7. Ellis, R.H. & Roberts, E.H. (1981a). The quantification of ageing and survival in orthodox seeds. Seed Science and Technology, 9: 373–409.
  8. Ellis, R.H., Hong, T.D. & Roberts, E.H. (1989). A comparison of the low-moisture content limit to the logarithmic relation between seed moisture content and longevity in twelve species. Annals of Botany, 63: 601–611.
  9. Ellis, R.H., Hong, T.D. & Roberts, E.H. (1990). An intermediate category of seed storage behaviour? I. Coffee. Journal of Experimental Botany, 41: 1167-1174.
  10. Ewart, A.J. (1908). On the longevity of seeds. Proc. Royal Soc. Victoria 21: 1-210.
  11. Gold, K. & Hay, F. (2008). Millennium Seedbank Project – Technical Information Sheet 09 - Equilibrating seeds to specific moisture levels. Available at:
  12. Gooding, M.J., Murdoch, A.J. & Ellis, R.H. (2003). The value of seeds, Seed Technology and its Biological Basis (eds M. Black and M. Bewley), pp. 2-41. Sheffield Academic Press.
  13. Hong, T.D., Linington, S. & Ellis, R.H. (1996). Seed storage behavior: a compendium. Handbooks for genebanks: No. 4. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome.
  14. Ibrahim, A.E. & Roberts, E.H. (1983). Viability of lettuce seeds. I. Survival in hermetic storage. J. Exp. Bot. 34:620-630.
  15. Ibrahim, A.E., Roberts, E.H. & Murdoch, A.J. (1983). Viability of lettuce seeds. II. Survival and oxygen uptake in osmotically controlled storage. J. Exp. Bot. 34: 631-640.
  16. Kraak, H.L. & Vos, J. (1987). Seed viability constants for lettuce. Annals of Botany, 77: 251–260.
  17. Kruse, M., Ghiasvand Ghiasi, K. & Schmohl, S. (2005). The seed viability equation for analyzing seed storage behavior. 2005. 7th ISTA Seminar on Statistics, University of Hohenheim on August 29 to September 2. Germany.
    1. Leon-Lobos, P. & Ellis, R.H. (2003). Low-moisture content limits for Nothofagus seed longevity, pp. 785–795. In: R.D. Smith, J.B. Dickie, S.H. Linington, H.W. Pritchard and R.J. Probert (eds). Seed conservation: turning science into practice. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK.
    2. Liu, K., Eastwood, R.J., Flynn, S., Turner, R.M. & Stuppy, W.H. (2008). Seed Information Database. from
    3. Plucknett, D.L., Smith, N.J.H., Williams, J.T. & Anishetty, N.M. (1987). Gene Banksand the World’s Food, Pinceton University Press, Priceton, New Jersey, USA.
    4. Priestley, D.A., Cullinan, V.I. & Wolfe. J. (1985). Differences in seed longevity at the species level. Plant Cell and Environment, 8: 557-562.
    5. Pritchard, H.W. & Dickie, J. B. (2003). Predicting seed longevity: the use and abuse of viability equations, pp. 655-700. In: R.D. Smith, J.B. Dickie, S.H. Linington, H.W. Pritchard and R.J. Probert (eds). Seed conservation: turning science into practice. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK.
      1. Roberts, E. H. (1961). Viability of cereal seed for brief and extended periods. 1bid. 25, 373-380.
      2. Roberts, E.H. (1973). Predicting the storage life of seeds. Seed Science and Technology, 1: 499-514.
      3. Sackville Hamilton, N.R. & Chorlton, K.H. (1997). Regeneration of accessions in seed collection: a decision guide. Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research. Published by International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI).
      4. Smith, R.D., Dickie, J.B., Linington, S.H., Pritchard, H.W. & Robert R.J. (2003). Seed conservation: turning science into practice. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK.
      5. Steiner, A.M. & Ruckenbauer, P. (1995). Germination of 110-year-old cereal and weed seeds, the Vienna Sample of 1877. Verification of effective ultra-dry storage at ambient temperature.Seed Science Research, 5(4): 195-199.
      6. Tompsett, P.B. (1986). The effect of temperature and moisture content on the longevity of seeds of Ulmus carpinifolia and Terminalia brasii. Ann. Bot. 57:875-883.
      7. Villiers, T.A. & Edgcumbe, D.J. (1975). On the cause of seed deterioration in dry storage. Seed Science and Technology, 3: 761-764.
      8. Yaja, J., Pawelzik, E. & Vearasilp, S. (2005). Prediction of soybean seed quality in relation to seed moisture content and storage temperature. Conference on International Agriculture Research for Development,