Determination of Azotobacter and Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Efficiency under Different Levels of Phosphorus on Yield and Yield Components of Forage Maize (KSC 704) in Arak



Nitrogen and phosphorus are two of the essential nutrients that promote plants' growth and yield. Deficiency of these nutrients in soil is usually compensated through application of chemical fertilizers. Chemical fertilizers on the other hand have detrimental effects on environment in addition to decreasing quality of agricultural products. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of an application of azotobacter and mycorrhiza as biofertilizer along with phosphorus (super phosphate) as the chemical fertilizer. The effects of the three factors, namely: azotobacter (inoculated and not inoculated), mycorrhiza (inoculated and not inoculated) and phosphorus (0, 50, 100 and 200 kg/ha) was evaluated through a factorial experiment of completely randomized block design of three replications in Central Province (Arak) Research Center of Agriculture and Natural Resources. The main and intraction effects of the three mentioned factors for number of kernels per row, number of kernels rows/ear, number of kernel per ear, ear, and dry matter weight showed that mycorrhiza symbiosis enhanced absorption of mineral elements, and as corrected the plant’s nutrition. Azotobacter also caused the fixation of biological nitrogen and production of metabolities that significantly affected the mentioned traits. The interaction of micorrhiza and l00 kg/ha of phosphorus had the most positive effects on the above traits. The results also indicated that, although every factor had its own positive effect on corn growth, yield, and other traits, but their interaction effects were more noticeable. The study also indicated that application of mycorrhiza along with azotobacter, not only decreased the demand for phosphorus (amount of only 100 kg/ha), but also improved yield and crop quality.