تأثیر روش‌های مختلف خاک‌ورزی بر تراکم بانک بذر و مدیریت جودره (Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch) در مزارع گندم

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری علوم علف‌های هرز، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی،‌ دانشگاه بوعلی‌سینا همدان

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی،‌ دانشگاه بوعلی‌سینا همدان

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر روش‌های مختلف خاک‌ورزی بر تراکم بانک بذر و مدیریت علف هرز جودره در اراضی گندم در تناوب با ذرت، آزمایشی به‌صورت کرت‌های یک‌بار خردشده در قالب طرح پایۀ بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با شش تکرار در دو سال زراعی (92-1391 و 93-1392) در اراضی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی زرقان فارس به اجرا درآمد. تیمارهای اصلی شامل خاک‌ورزی کامل، کم خاک‌ورزی و بی‌خاک‌ورزی و تیمارهای فرعی شامل کاربرد علفکش توتال (سولفوسولفورون 75درصد + مت سولفورون 5درصد) به میزان 40 گرم در هکتار در مرحلۀ ظهور گره دوم جودره و شاهد (بدون کنترل علف‌های هرز) بود. نتایج نشان داد، تراکم بانک بذر طی دو سال، به ترتیب در خاک‌ورزی کامل، کم خاک‌ورزی و بی‌خاک‌ورزی به‌صورت معنی‌دار بیشتر بود. گاوآهن برگردان‌دار موجب دفن بذرهای جودره ریزش کرده و افزایش دوام آن‌ها در لایه‌های خاک شد. به دلیل افزایش تراکم بانک بذر در خاک‌ورزی کامل، تراکم گیاهچه، سنبله و وزن خشک جودره نیز افزایش یافت. این امر موجب کاهش معنی‌دار عملکرد گندم در تیمار خاک‌ورزی کامل نسبت به کم خاک‌ورزی شد. در مجموع شیوه‌های مدیریتی متکی بر کم خاک‌ورزی به همراه علفکش، در کاهش بانک بذر و مدیریت درازمدت جودره مؤثر بوده ضمن اینکه عملکرد، نسبت به خاک‌ورزی کامل و بی خاک‌ورزی به‌صورت معنی‌دار بیشتر بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch) seedbank characterization and its management in wheat fields under different tillage systems

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Reza Jamali 1
  • Goodarz Ahmadvand 2
1 Ph. D. Candidate of Weed Science, Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bu-Ali Sina, Hamedan, Iran
2 Associate Prorfessor, Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bu-Ali Sina, Hamedan, Iran
چکیده [English]

A field study was carried out in Fars agricultural research center to investigate effects of different tillage systems and chemical control on soil seedbank density and management of wild barley in wheat fields followed by corn. A split-plot trial based on randomized complete block design with six replications was conducted during two following years (2012-2014). Main plots included conventional tillage (CT), minimum tillage (MT) and no-tillage (NT). Each main plot was split into two subplots as weed-infested and herbicide application. Total (Sulfosulfuron 75% + metsulfuron methyl 5%) at 40 g/ha was applied in wheat field at the stage 32 of Zadoks decimal code. Results indicated that soil seedbank density of wild barley was significantly increased in CT, MT and NT respectively during two years. Moaldboard plough influenced vertical distribution and longevity of seeds in soil. Increasing soil seedbank lead to enhance seedling, spike number and dry weight of wild barley. Wheat yield in CT decreased significantly in comparison to MT due to high density of weed seedbank. Overall, MT system with herbicide got long- term wild barley management. This treatment reduced soil seedbank and increased wheat yield significantly in comparison to CT and MT.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Conventional tillage
  • minimum-tillage
  • no-tillage
  • Weed
  • Wheat
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